Studying the Self Through The Lens of a Social Psychologist

PSYCHOLOGY 571J - Studies in General Psychology: Social Behavior

Section 1, Spring 2004

Reference # 06043

An Electronic Version of This Syllabus Can Be Viewed From Dr. J's Webpage at:

M, W............. 2:00PM - 3:15PM ............... 3 Credits .............. PM210


Information in this syllabus is subject to changes and additions announced in class!

And there WILL likely be some changes, so come to class!



Specific topics in the area of general psychology offered under the appropriate heading. May include lecture, laboratory, seminar, or a combinations of these methods. Topics and semester hours of credit vary. May be repeated to a maximum of 18 semester hours. (Yawn!)


The content of this course is shaped by two things: (1) my perceptions of research areas that exist at the interface between social psychology and the broader the area of "the self" (which is huge), and (2) my own personal interests. Almost every introductory level textbook in social psychology includes a chapter that discusses 'the self'. When I was a young student, I always asked myself why that was the case. I did not care much for the topic because it seemed to take me away from the things that caused me to be interested in social psychology in the first place. It also seemed to take me closer to the kinds of things that clinical psychologists did (and that was definitely not a domain of interest for me). It took me a while to realize that there were several reasons for social psychologists to be interested in the self. Among them are: (1) it is possible that the self is shaped by the social context via social feedback mechanisms (reflected appraisal) and projected appraisal (exactly how much this happens is a topic of considerable debate); (2) comparisons of the self to others can occur, yielding both emotional and cognitive consequences; and (3) the way in which we think about people, the dimensions on which we judge them, and the weight that is places on various factors that enter into those judgments, can be influenced by our own self-perceptions. You will see exactly these topics represented in this course syllabus. There are also some topics that are represented in this syllabus that reflect my own personal interests (the course title is "Studying the Self Through the Lens of a Social Psychologist" - that social psychologist would be me - grin). Among these topics are things that have to do with the storage, structure, and processing of self-relevant information - interests that obviously derive from my general interests in social cognition. In addition, I have a research interest in aspects of autobiographical memory, a topic that many now argue has crucial relevance to the self-concept (and we'll be reviewing some of these arguments). I hope that you enjoy learning about these kinds of topics. I know that I will.


Am I Ready To Be In This Course? Even though there is no prerequisite, the course assumes that you have advanced knowledge of social psychology (e.g., you've taken at least one graduate-level course on the topic -this course is not for beginners).

Reading and Sophistication Level. The course also assumes that you are motivated enough to read a lot (pay special attention to the words "a lot") of graduate-level material and to be able to discuss that material in sophisticated and theoretically-relevant ways, and especially in empirically testable ways.

Gain experience in leading a graduate-level class. You will also be assigned (with a partner) to select one of the 13 weekly topics and to lead the class exploration of that topic for a week. I want to emphasize that THE CLASS WILL BE ENTIRELY YOURS FOR THE WEEK - you can do whatever you want (lecture, demo, discussion, design research). My only caution to you is that I will be one of the students in the class, so whatever you do had damn well better teach me something.

The Grant Proposal assignment. For your class assignment you will be asked to write a grant proposal detailing a research program that explores one of the 13 topics in the class. Applications must be prepared using the PHS 398 research grant application instructions and forms (rev. 5/2001). The PHS 398 is available at in an interactive format. For further assistance contact GrantsInfo, Telephone (301) 435-0714, or Email:

This is likely to be new to you (that's the point). Here are some websites that contain useful information:

For an R03 grant, all instructions for the PHS 398 (rev. 5/2001) must be followed, with these exceptions:

o Research Plan : Items a - d of the Research Plan (Specific Aims, Background and Significance, Preliminary Studies, and Research Design and Methods) may not exceed a total of 10 pages.

o Appendix. The appendix may include original, glossy photographs or color images of gels, micrographs, etc. provided that a photocopy (may be reduced in size) is also included within the page limits of the research plan. No publications or other printed material, with the exception of pre-printed questionnaires or surveys, may be included in the appendix.



All R03 applications must be submitted in a modular grant format. The modular grant format simplifies the preparation of the budget in these applications by limiting the level of budgetary detail. Applicants request direct costs in $25,000 modules. Section C of the research grant application instructions for the PHS 398 (rev. 5/2001) at includes step-by-step guidance for preparing modular grants. Additional information on modular grants is available at I will also have sample grant proposals available for you to look at.

For the NIH Small Grant (R03), applicants may request direct costs in $25,000 modules, up to a total, annual direct cost request of $50,000 for project periods up to two years.

Topics and Dates

Jan 12 Organization & Introduction 14 Introductory Issues
Jan 19 MLK Day (no class) 21 Introductory Issues
Jan 26 Self-Appraisal, Reflected & Projected 28 Self-Appraisal, Reflected & Projected
Feb 2 Issues in Social Comparison 4 Issues in Social Comparison
Feb 9 Self-observation and Inference 11 Self-observation and Inference
Feb 16 The Self Motives 18 The Self Motives
Feb 23 The Self & Self Information Processing 25 The Self & Self Information Processing
Mar 1 Attitude Change, Dissonance Processes & The Self 3 Attitude Change, Dissonance Processes & The Self
Mar 8 Spring Break 10 Spring Break
Mar 15 Self-Knowledge: Content and Complexity 17 Self-Knowledge: Content and Complexity
Mar 22 Self-Knowledge: Stability & Malleability 24 Self-Knowledge: Stability & Malleability
Mar 29 Self-Knowledge: The Concrete and The Abstract 31 Self-Knowledge: The Concrete and The Abstract
Apr 5 Autobiographical Memory & The Self I - Structural Issues 7 Autobiographical Memory & The Self I - Structural Issues
Apr 12 Autobiographical Memory & The Self II - Memory & Content 14 Autobiographical Memory & The Self II - Memory & Content
Apr 19 Autobiographical Memory & The Self III - The Social Genesis 21 Autobiographical Memory & The Self III - The Social Genesis
Apr 26 The Self and Social Information Processing 28 The Self and Social Information Processing
May 3 Grant Proposal Due (5PM)    


Your grant proposal will account for 50% of your grade. Both the quality of the ideas in the grant, as well as technical matters related to the construction of the grant (correct form completion, language use, etc.) will enter into the grading process. These judgments will be made solely by your professor.

Your performance as an instructor in the class sessions that you lead will account for 35% of your grade. This judgment will be made by your professor after consultation with class members.

Your contribution to class discussions will account for 15% of your grade. This judgment will be made by your professor after consultation with class members.


Name: John J. Skowronski, Ph.D. Aliases: Dr. Skowronski, Dr. John, Dr. J.

Feel free to call me whatever you like -- just be careful what you call me to my face!

NIU Rank: Full Professor (and people generally think that I'm full of it!)

Birthplace: Chicago (so don't even THINK of messing with me!

Degrees: M.A., Ph.D., University of Iowa, B.A., Augustana College (Il.)

                                        Go Hawks!                      Go Vikings!

Yes, as much as it amazes you I am a Ph.D. --- that means I can, indeed, Pile it Higher and Deeper.

A Few Professional Highlights:

Co-author of the book Autobiographical Memory (Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers)

Author or co-author of over 50 professional journal articles and book chapters.

Associate Editor, Social Cognition (professional journal)

Recipient, Ohio State University Alumni Award for Distinguished Teaching (back in my former job {Go Buckeyes!}, they were under the mistaken impression that I could actually teach.....)

Previous Employers (e.g., folks who have finally gotten rid of me):

Augustana College (Instructor)

The University of Iowa (Instructor)

Kansas State University (Visiting Assistant Professor)

Purdue University (Visiting Assistant Professor)

Southampton University, England (Distinguished Visiting Professor)

The Ohio State University (Assistant, Associate, and Full Professor)



Office: PM 418 Office Phone: 753-7073 E-mail:

As pro golfer Fred Couples once said, the problem with answering the phone is that there might be someone on the other end. So chances are that if you call me, you'll have to leave a message on my voice mail. E-mail is another place to leave me messages that I can ignore.

Office Hours: M/W/F 9:00AM - 10:00AM and by appointment

Stop by during office hours. If you can't see me at those times, feel free to make appointments to see me -- whatever reason is good enough for you is good enough for me! You can even take a chance and just drop by if you are feeling lucky, but I am often about on other university business, so appointments are safer. Bring along pizza and root beer, just to make sure I'll let you in to my office.



Weeks 1 & 2, (Jan 12-Jan 21). Psychology 571J

Introductory issues: Seeing the Forest for the Trees.

Baumeister, Roy F.(1998). The self. In D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske & G. Lindzey (Eds), The handbook of social psychology, Vol. 2 (4th ed.). (pp. 680-740). New York: Oxford University Press.

Baumeister, R. F. (1987). How the self became a problem: A psychological review of historical research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 163-176.

Markus, H., & Wurf, E. (1987). The dynamic self-concept: A social psychological perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 299-337.

Leary, M.R., & Tangney, J.P.(2003). The self as an organizing construct in the social and behavioral sciences. In M.R. Leary & J.P.Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 3-14). New York: Guilford Press.

Mischel, W. & Morf, C.C. (2003). The self as a psycho-social dynamic processing system: A meta perspective on a century of self in psychology. In M.R. Leary & J.P.Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity, (pp. 15-43). New York: Guilford Press.

Oyserman, D. (2001). Self-concept and identity. In A. Tesser & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Intraindividual processes (pp. 499-517). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Sedikides, C., & Skowronski, J. J. (1997). The symbolic self in evolutionary context. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1, 80-102.

Sedikides, C., & Skowronski, J. J. (2000). On the evolutionary functions of the symbolic self: the emergence of self-evaluation motives. In A. Tesser, R.B. Felson & J.M.. Suls, Psychological Perspectives on Self and Identity (pp. 91-118). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Tice, D.M, & Baumeister, R. F. (2001). The primacy of the interpersonal self. In C. Sedikides, & M. B. Brewer (Eds.), Individual self, relational self, collective self. (pp. 71-88). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

Week 3 (Jan 26 & 28) - Psychology 571J

Seeing us how others see us, or how we think others see us? Reflected Appraisal versus Projected Appraisal.

Tice, D.M. & Wallace, H.M. (2003). The reflected self: Creating yourself as (you think) others see you. In M.R. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds) Handbook of self and identity (pp. 91-105). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

Shrauger, J. S., & Schoeneman, T. J. (1979). Symbolic interactionist view of self-concept: Through the looking glass darkly. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 549-573.

Felson, R. B. (1993). The (somewhat) social self: How others affect self-appraisals. In J. Suls (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 4, pp. 1-26). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kenny, D. A., & DePaulo, B. M. (1993). Do people know how others view them? An empirical and theoretical account. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 145-161.

Backman, C. W., Secord, P. F., & Peirce, J. R. (1963). Resistance to change in the self-concept as a function of consensus among significant others. Sociometry, 26, 102-111.

Hoelter, J. W. (1984). Relative effects of significant others on self-evaluation. Social Psychology Quarterly, 47, 255-262.

Fazio, R. H., Effrein, E. A., & Falender, V. J. (1981). Self-perceptions following social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 232-242.

Jussim, L., Soffin, S., Brown, R., Ley, J., & Kohlepp, K. (1992). Understanding reactions to feedback by integrating ideas from symbolic interactionism and cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 402-421.

Schoeneman, T. J. (1981). Reports of the sources of self-knowledge. Journal of Personality, 49, 284-294.

Sedikides, C., & Skowronski, J.J. (1995). On the sources of self-knowledge: The perceived primacy of self-reflection. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 14, 244-270.

Cast, A.D., Stets, J.E., & Burke, P.J. (1999). Does the self conform to the views of others? Social Psychology Quarterly, 62, 68-82.

Drigotas, S.M., Rusbult, C.E., Wieselquist, J., & Whitton, S.W. (1999). Close partner as sculptor of the ideal self: Behavioral affirmation and the Michelangelo phenomenon. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 77, 293-323.


Week 4 (Feb 2- Feb 4) - Psychology 571J

You Did Well....But I Did Better! Issues in Social Comparison and Implications for the Self

Wood, J.V., & Wilson, A.E. (2003). How important is social comparison? In M.R. Leary & J.P.Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 344-366). New York: Guilford Press.

Albert, S. (1977). Temporal comparison theory. Psychological Review, 84, 485-503.

Suls, J., Martin, R., & Wheeler, L. (2003). The importance of the question in the judgment of abilities and opinions via social comparison. In J.P. Forgas, K.D. Williams, et al. (Eds.), Social judgments: Implicit and explicit processes (pp. 273-289). New York: Cambridge University Press. xxi, 417pp.

Major, B. (1994). From social inequality to personal entitlement: The role of social comparisons, legitimacy appraisals, and group membership. In M.P. Zanna (Ed), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 26. pp. 293-355). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Broemer, P. & Diehl, M. (2003). What You Think Is What You Get: Comparative Evaluations of Close Relationships. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1560-1569.

Neighbors, C., & Knee, C. R. (2003). Self-determination and the consequences of social comparison. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 529-546.

Wilson, A.E., & Ross, M.. (2000). The frequency of temporal-self and social comparisons in people's personal appraisals. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78, 928-942.

Gilbert, D.T, Giesler, R. B., & Morris, K.A. (1995). When comparisons arise. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 69, 227-236.

Mussweiler, T., & Ruter, K. (2003). What Friends Are For! The Use of Routine Standards in Social Comparison. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 85, 467-481.

Buckingham, J.T, & Alicke, M.D. (2002) The influence of individual versus aggregate social comparison and the presence of others on self-evaluations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 83, 1117-1130.

Locke, K. D. (2003). Status and solidarity in social comparison: Agentic and communal values and vertical and horizontal directions. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 84, 619-631.

Martinot, D., Redersdorff, S., Guimond, S., & Dif, S. (2002) Ingroup versus outgroup comparisons and self-esteem: The role of group status and ingroup identification. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1586-1600.



Week 5: Feb 9 & Feb 11: Inferences and Judgments about the Self: Am I Good, or What?

Sedikides, C. (1992). Changes in the valence of the self as a function of mood. In M.S. Clark (Ed), Emotion and social behavior. Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 14., pp. 271-311). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Bem, D.J. (1967). Self-perception: an Alternative Interpretation of Cognitive Dissonance Phenomena. Psychological Review, 74, 183-200.

Baldwin, M.W. (1997). Relational schemas as a source of if-then self-inference procedures. Review of General Psychology, 1, 326-335.

Olson, J.M., & Hafer, C.L. (1990). Self-inference processes: Looking back and ahead. In J.M. Olson & M.P. Zanna, (Eds), Self-inference processes: The Ontario symposium, (Vol. 6, pp. 293-320). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Campbell, W. K., & Sedikides, C. (1999). Self-threat magnifies the self-serving bias: A meta-analytic integration. Review of General Psychology, 3, 23-43.

Dunn, E.W., Wilson, T.D., & Gilbert, D.T.(2003) Location, Location, Location: The Misprediction of Satisfaction in Housing Lotteries. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1421-1432.

Belli, R.F, Winkielman, P., Read, J. D., Schwarz, N., &; Lynn, S.J.. (1998). Recalling more childhood events leads to judgments of poorer memory: Implications for the recovered/false memory debate. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5, 1998, 318-323.

Pezzo, M.V. (2003) Surprise, defence, or making sense: What removes hindsight bias? Memory, 11, 421-441.

Robinson, M.D.; Ryff, C.D. (1999). The role of self-deception in perceptions of past, present, and future happiness. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 595-606.

Kolar, D.W. Funder, D.C., & Colvin, C. R (1996). Comparing the accuracy of personality judgments by the self and knowledgeable others. Journal of Personality 64, 311-337.

Andersen, S.M., Lazowski, L.E., & Donisi, M. (1986). Salience and self-inference: The role of biased recollections in self-inference processes. Social Cognition, 4, 75-95.

Duval, T.S., & Silvia, P.J. (2002). Self-awareness, probability of improvement, and the self-serving bias. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 82, 49-61.

Campbell, W. K., Sedikides, C., Reeder, G.D., & Elliott, A.J. (2000). Among friends? An examination of friendship and the self-serving bias. British Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 229-239.

Sedikides, C., Campbell, W. K.; Reeder, G.D., & Elliot, A.J. (1998). The self-serving bias in relational context. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74, 378-386.



Week 6: Feb 16 & Feb 18 - The Self Motives of Assessment, Enhancement & Verification: How good am I now and how good can I get?

Sedikides, C., & Strube, M.J. (1997). Self evaluation: To thine own self be good, to thine own self be sure, to thine own self be true, and to thine own self be better. In M.P. Zanna, (Ed) Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 209-269). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Swann, W.B., Rentfrow, P.J., & Guinn, J.S. (2003). Self-verification: The search for coherence. In M.R. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self & identity (pp. 367- 383). New York: Guilford Press.

Trope, Y. (1986). Self-enhancement and self-assessment in achievement behavior. In R.M. Sorrentrino & E.T. Higgins (Eds.) Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior. (pp. 350-378). New York: Guilford.

Dauenheimer, D.G., Stahlberg, D., Spreemann, S., & Sedikides, C. (2002). Self-enhancement, self-verification, or self-assessment? The intricate role of trait modifiability in the self-evaluation process. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 15, 89-112.

Swann, W.B. Jr; & Pelham, B. (2002) Who wants out when the going gets good? Psychological investment and preference for self-verifying college roommates. Self & Identity, 1, 219-233.

Trope, Y. (1980). Self-assessment, self-enhancement, and task preference. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16, 116-129.

Trope, Y. (1982). Self-assessment and task performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 201-215.

Strube, M. J., Lott, C. L., Le-Xuan-Hy, G. M., Oxenberg, J., & Deichmann, A. K. (1986). Self-evaluation of abilities: Accurate self-assessment versus biased self-enhancement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 16-25.

Strube, M. J., & Roemmele, L. A. (1985). Self-enhancement, self-assessment, and self-evaluative task choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 981-993.

Brown, J. D. (1990). Evaluating one's abilities: Shortcuts and stumbling blocks on the road to self-knowledge. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 149-167.

Dunning, D., Meyerowitz, J. A., & Holzberg, A. D. (1989). Ambiguity and self-evaluation: The role of idiosyncratic trait definitions in self-serving assessments of ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1082-1090.

Dunning, D. (1995). Trait importance and modifiability as factors influencing self-assessment and self-enhancement motives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1297-1306.

Brown, J. D., & Dutton, K. A. (1995). Truth and consequences: The costs and benefits of accurate self-knowledge. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1288-1296.

Seta, J.J., Donaldson, S., & Seta, C.E. (1999) Self-relevance as a moderator of self-enhancement and self-verification. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 442-462.

Swann, W. B., Pelham, B. W., & Krull, D. S. (1989). Agreeable fancy or disagreeable truth? Reconciling self-enhancement and self-verification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 782-791.



Week 7, Feb 23 & 25 - The Self & Self-Relevant Information Processing: Do I See Only what I Want to See?

Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84, 231-259.

Linville, P.W., & Carlston, D.E. (1994). Social cognition of the self. In P.G. Devine, D.L. Hamilton, & T.M. Ostrom (Eds.), Social cognition: Impact on social psychology (pp. 143-193). San Diego: Academic Press.

Mittag, W. (1995). Self-concept and information-processing: Methodological problems and theoretical implications. In A. Oosterwegel & R.A. Wicklund (Eds). The self in European and North American culture: Development and processes: NATO advanced science institutes series. (pp. 143-158). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Markus, H. (1977). Self-schemata and processing information about the self. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 35, 63-78.

Bargh, J. A. (1982). Attention and automaticity in the processing of self-relevant information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 425-436.

Klein, S.B., Loftus, J, & Plog, A.E. (1992). Trait judgments about the self: Evidence from the encoding specificity paradigm. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 730-735.

Schmeichel, B.J., Vohs, K.D, & Baumeister, R.F. (2003) Intellectual performance and ego depletion: Role of the self in logical reasoning and other information processing. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 85, 33-46.

Williams, P.G., Wasserman, M.S., & Lotto, A.J. (2003). Individual differences in self-assessed health: An information-processing investigation of health and illness cognition. Health Psychology, 22, 3-11.

Aaker, J.L. & Lee, A.Y. (2001) "I" seek pleasures and "we" avoid pains: The role of self-regulatory goals in information processing and persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research., 28, 33-49.

Petty, R.E., Brinol, P., & Tormala, Z. L. (2002). Thought confidence as a determinant of persuasion: The self-validation hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 82, 722-741.

Stapel, D.A., & Koomen, W. (2001). I, we, and the effects of others on me: How self-construal level moderates social comparison effects. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 766-781.

Sedikides, C., & Green, J.D. (2000) On the self-protective nature of inconsistency-negativity management: Using the person memory paradigm to examine self-referent memory. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 79, 906-922.

Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y, Murray, L.A,, Whitehouse, W.G., & Hogan, M.E. (1997). Self-referent information-processing in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Cognition & Emotion, 11, 539-568.



Week 8, Mar 8 & 10 - Attitude Change, Dissonance Processes, & The Self: Can I feel bad if I feel good about me?

Cooper, J., & Fazio, R. H. (1984). A new look at dissonance theory. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 17, pp. 229-266). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Harmon-Jones, E. (2000). An update on cognitive dissonance theory, with a focus on the self. In A. Tesser, R.B. Felson, & J.M. Suls (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on self and identity (pp. 119-144). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Steele, C. M. (1988). The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 21, pp. 261-302). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Stone, J. (2001). Behavioral discrepancies and the role of construal processes in cognitive dissonance. In Moskowitz, G.B. (Ed). Cognitive social psychology: The Princeton Symposium on the Legacy and Future of Social Cognition (pp. 41-58). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Leippe, M.R., & Eisenstadt, Donna (1999). A self-accountability model of dissonance reduction: Multiple modes on a continuum of elaboration. In E. Harmon-Jones & J. Mills (Eds). Cognitive dissonance: Progress on a pivotal theory in social psychology (Science conference series, pp. 201-232). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association,

Stone, J., & Cooper, J. (2001). A self-standards model of cognitive dissonance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 228-243.

Stone, J. (2003) Self-consistency for low self-esteem in dissonance processes: The role of self-standards. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 846-858.

Holland, R.W., Meertens, R.M., & Van Vugt, M. (2002). Dissonance on the road: Self esteem as a moderator of internal and external self-justification strategies. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin. 28, 1713-1724.

Lieberman, M.D., Ochsner, K.N., Gilbert, D.T., & Schacter, D.L. (2001). Do amnesics exhibit cognitive dissonance reduction? The role of explicit memory and attention in attitude change. Psychological Science, 121, 135-140.

Galinsky, A.D, Stone, J. & Cooper, J. (2000) The reinstatement of dissonance and psychological discomfort following failed affirmation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 123-147.

Cooper, J. (1998) Unlearning cognitive dissonance: Toward an understanding of the development of dissonance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 562-575.

Fried, C. B., & Aronson, E. (1995). Hypocrisy, misattribution, and dissonance reduction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 925-933.

Heine, S.J., & Lehman, D.R. (1997) Culture, dissonance, and self-affirmation. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 389-400.

Harmon-Jones, E, Brehm, J.W., Greenberg, J., Simon, L., & Nelson, D.E. (1996). Evidence that the production of aversive consequences is not necessary to create cognitive dissonance. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 70, 5-16.

Elliot, A.J., & Devine, P.G. (1994). On the motivational nature of cognitive dissonance: Dissonance as psychological discomfort. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 67, 382-394.




Week 9: March 15 & 17 - Self knowledge: content & complexity: When I think of myself, what do I think of?

Niedenthal, P.M., & Beike, D.R. (1997). Interrelated and isolated self-concepts. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 1, 106-128.

Hogg, M.A. (2003). Social Identity. In M.R. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self & identity (pp. 462-479). New York: Guilford Press.

Rafaeli-Mor, E.; Steinberg, J.(2002). Self-complexity and well-being: A review and research synthesis. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 6, 31-58.

Andersen, S.M., & Chen, S. (2002). The relational self: An interpersonal social-cognitive theory. Psychological Review, 109, 619-645.

Brewer, M.B., & Gardner, W. (1996). Who is this 'we"? Levels of collective identity and self representation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 83-93.

Kuehnen, U., Hannover, B., & Schubert, B. (2001). The semantic-procedural interface model of the self: The role of self-knowledge for context-dependent versus context-independent modes of thinking. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 397-409.

Gaertner, L., Sedikides, C., & Graetz, K. (1999). In search of self-definition: Motivational primacy of the individual self, motivational primacy of the collective self, or contextual primacy? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 76, 5-18.

Showers, C., Abramson, L. Y., & Hogan, M. E. (1998). The dynamic self: How the content and structure of the self-concept change with mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 478-493.

Gabriel, S., & Gardner, W. L. (1999). Are there "his" and "hers" types of independence? The implications of gender differences in collective versus relational interdependence for affect, behavior, and cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 642-655.

Lutz, C.J., & Ross, S. R. (2003). Elaboration Versus Fragmentation: Distinguishing Between Self-complexity and Self-concept Differentiation. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 22, 537-559.

Turner, J. C., Oakes, P. J., Haslam, S. A., & McGarty, G. (1994). Self and collective: Cognition and social context. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 454-463.

Brewer, M. B., & Weber, J. G. (1994). Self-evaluation effects of interpersonal versus intergroup social comparison. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 268-275.

Deaux, K. (1993). Reconstructing social identity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 4-12.

Simon, B., Pantaleo, G., & Mummendey, A. (1995). Unique individual or interchangeable group member? The accentuation of intragroup differences versus similarities as an indicator of the individual self versus the collective self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 106-119.



Week 10: March 22 & 24: Am I the same self that I was yesterday? Stability and change in the self-concept.

Kernis, M.H., & Goldman, B.M. (2003). Stability and variability in the self-concept and self-esteem. In M.R. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self & identity (pp. 106-127). New York: Guilford Press.

Abrams, D. (1999). Social identity, social cognition, and the self: The flexibility and stability of self-categorization. In D. Abrams & M.A. Hogg (Eds). (1999). Social identity and social cognition (pp. 197-229). Malden, Mass.; Blackwell.

Brewer, M.B. (2003). Optimal distinctiveness, social identity and the self. In M.R. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self & identity (pp. 480-491). New York: Guilford Press.

Vallacher, R.R; Nowak, A., Froehlich, M., & Rockloff, M.. (2002). The dynamics of self-evaluation. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 6, 370-379.

Morse, S., & Gergen, K. (1970). Social comparison, self-consistency, and the presentation of self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 148-156.

Tice, D.M.. (1992). Self-concept change and self-presentation: The looking glass self is also a magnifying glass. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 435-451.

Schwarz, N., Bless, H., Strack, F., Klumpp, G., Rittenauer-Schatka, H., & Simons, A. (1991). Ease of retrieval as information: Another look at the availability heuristic. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 195-202.

Pelham, B. W., & Wachsmuth, J. O. (1995). The waxing and waning of the social self: Assimilation and contrast in social comparison. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 825-838.

Damon, W., & Hart, D. (1986). Stability and change in children's self-understanding. Social Cognition, 4, 102-118.

Deutsch, F. M., Ruble, D. N., Brooks-Gunn, J., Fleming, A., & Stangor, C. (1988). Information-seeking and maternal self-definition during the transition to motherhood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 420-431.

Troll, L.E., & Skaff, M.M. (1997). Perceived continuity of self in very old age. Psychology & Aging, 12, 162-169.

Strauman, T.J. (1996). Stability within the self: A longitudinal study of the structural implications of self-discrepancy theory. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 71, 1142-1153.

Campbell, J.D., Trapnell, P.D., Heine, S.J., Katz, I.M. Lavallee, L.F. & Lehman, D.R. (1996). Self-concept clarity: Measurement, personality correlates, and cultural boundaries. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 70, 1996, 141-156.

Markus, H., & Kunda, Z. (1986). Stability and malleability of the self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 858-866.




Week 11: March 29 & 31: The conceptual or concrete nature of self-knowledge: am I what I conclude that I am or am I what I remember myself to be?

Kihlstrom, J.F., Beer, J.S., & Klein, S.B. (2003) Self and identity as memory. In M.R. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self & identity (pp. 68-90). New York: Guilford Press.

Tulving, E.. (2001). Origin of autonoesis in episodic memory. In H.L. Roediger, J.S; Nairne, et al. (2001). The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G.Crowder. (pp. 17-34). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association

Klein, S. B., & Loftus, J. (1993). The mental representation of trait and autobiographical knowledge about the self. In T. K. Srull & R. S. Wyer, Jr. (Eds.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 5, pp. 1-49). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Tulving, E. (1993). Self-knowledge of an amnesic individual is represented abstractly. In T. K. Srull & R. S. Wyer, Jr. (Eds.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 5, 147-156). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Vorauer, J. D., & Ross, M. (1993). Exploring the nature and implications of functional independence: Do mental representations of the self become independent of their bases? In T. K. Srull & R. S. Wyer, Jr. (Eds.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 5, pp. 157-169). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Schneider, D. J., Roediger, H. L., II, & Khan, M. (1993). Diverse ways of accessing self-knowledge: Comment on Klein and Loftus. In T. K. Srull & R. S. Wyer, Jr. (Eds.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 5, pp. 123-136). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Brown, N. R. (1993). Response times, retrieval strategies, and the investigation of autobiographical memory. In T. K. Srull & R. S. Wyer, Jr. (Eds.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 5, pp. 61-68). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Keenan, J. M. (1993). An exemplar model can explain Klein and Loftus' results. In T. K. Srull & R. S. Wyer, Jr. (Eds.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 5, pp. 69-77). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Mancuso, J.C., & Ceely, S.G. (1980). The self as memory processing. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 4, 1-25.

Klein, S.B., Cosmides, L., & Costabile, K.A. (2003). Preserved knowledge of self in a case of Alzheimer's Dementia. Social Cognition, 21, 157-165.

Klein, S.B., Rozendal, K., & Cosmides, L. (2002). A social-cognitive neuroscience analysis of the self. Social Cognition, 20, 105-135.

Klein, S.B. Chan, R.L. & Loftus, J. (1999). Independence of episodic and semantic self-knowledge: The case from autism. Social Cognition, 17, 413-436.

Klein, S.B., Babey, S.H. & Sherman, J.W. (1997) The functional independence of trait and behavioral self-knowledge: Methodological considerations and new empirical findings. Social Cognition, 15, 183-203.

Klein, S.B., Loftus, J., & Kihlstrom, J.F. (1996) . Self-knowledge of an amnesic patient: Toward a neuropsychology of personality and social psychology. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 125, 250-260.

Schell, T.L., Klein, S.B., & Babey, S.H. (1996). Testing a hierarchical model of self-knowledge. [Journal Article] Psychological Science, 7, 170-173.

Robinson, M. D., & Clore, G.L. (2002). Episodic and semantic knowledge in emotional self-report: Evidence for two judgment processes. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 83, 198-215.

Riutort, M., Cuervo, C., Danion, J., Peretti, C.S., & Salame, P. (2003). Reduced levels of specific autobiographical memories in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 117, 35-45.

Barnett, M.P., Newman, H. W., Richardson, J.T.E., Thompson, P., & Upton, D. (2000). The constituent structure of autobiographical memory: Autobiographical fluency in people with chronic epilepsy. Memory, 8, 413-424.



Week 12: April 5 & 7 - The nature and structure of autobiographical memory and its relation to the self: What's in there, how is it organized, and what does the self have to do with it?

Showers, C.J., & Ziegler-Hill, V. (2003). Organization of self-knowledge: features, functions, and flexibility. In M.R. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self & identity (pp. 47-67). New York: Guilford Press.

Conway, M.A., & Pleydell-Pearce, C.W. (2000) The construction of autobiographical memories in the self-memory system. Psychological Review, 107, 261-288.

Shum, M.S. (1998). The role of temporal landmarks in autobiographical memory processes. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 423-442.

Howe, M.L.& Courage, M.L. (1997). The emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. Psychological Review, 104, 499-523.

Pillemer, D.B. Momentous events and the life story. Review of General Psychology, 5, 123-134.

McAdams, D.P.(2001) The psychology of life stories. Review of General Psychology, 5, 100-122.

Neimeyer, G.J., & Metzler, A.E. (1994). Personal identity and autobiographical recall. In U. Neisser, & R. Fivush (Eds.), The remembering self: Construction and accuracy in the self-narrative. Emory symposia in cognition (Vol. 6, pp. 105-135). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

Brown, N.R., & Schopflocher, D. (1998). Event clusters: An organization of personal events in autobiographical memory. Psychological Science, 9, 470-475.

Addis, D.R., & Tippett, L. J. (2004). Memory of myself: Autobiographical memory and identity in Alzheimer's disease. Memory, 12, 56-74.

Skowronski, J.J., Walker, W.R., & Betz, A.L. (2003). Ordering our world: An examination of time in autobiographical memory. Memory, 11, 247-260.

Westmacott, R., & Moscovitch, M.. The contribution of autobiographical significance to semantic memory. Memory & Cognition, 31, 761-774.

Lancaster, J.S., & Barsalou, L.W. (1997). Multiple organisations of events in memory. Memory, 5, 569-599.

Taylor, H.A., & Tversky, B.(1997) Indexing events in memory: Evidence for index dominance. Memory, 5, 509-542.

Anderson, S.J., & Conway, M A.(1993). Investigating the structure of autobiographical memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 1178-1196.

Conway, M. A., & Bekerian, D. A. (1987). Organization in autobiographical memory. Memory & Cognition, 15, 119-132.

Craik, F.I.M., Moroz, T.M., Moscovitch, M., Stuss, D.T., Winocur, G., Tulving, E., & Kapur, S. (1999). In search of the self: A positron emission tomography study. Psychological Science, 10, 26-34.

Rubin, D.C, & Berntsen, D. (2003). Life scripts help to maintain autobiographical memories of highly positive, but not highly negative, events. Memory & Cognition, 31, 1-14.



Week 13: April 12 & 14- The self and memories about the self: How is my autobiographical memory affected by who I am and how is who I am affected by my autobiographical memory?

Greenwald, A. G. (1980). The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history. American Psychologist, 35, 603-618.

Ross, M., & Wilson, A.E. (2000). Constructing and appraising past selves. In D.L. Schacter & E. Scarry (Eds), Memory, brain, and belief (pp. 231-258). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Ross, M. (1989). Relation of implicit theories to the construction of personal histories. Psychological Review, 96, 341-357.

Wilson, A.E., & Ross, M. (2003). The identity function of autobiographical memory: Time is on our side. Memory, 11, 137-149.

Woike, B., Mcleod, S., & Goggin, M. (2003). Implicit and explicit motives influence accessibility to different autobiographical knowledge. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1046-1055.

Christensen, T.C., Wood, J.V., & Barrett, L.F. (2003). Remembering everyday experience through the prism of self-esteem. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 51-62.

Libby, L.K., & Eibach, R.P. (2002). Looking back in time: Self-concept change affects visual perspective in autobiographical memory. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 82, 167-179.

Smith, J.A. (1994). Reconstructing selves: An analysis of discrepancies between women's contemporaneous and retrospective accounts of the transition to motherhood. British Journal of Psychology, 85, 371-392.

Walker, W.R, Skowronski, J.J., Gibbons, J.A., Vogl, R.J., & Thompson, C. P. (2003). On the emotions that accompany autobiographical memories: Dysphoria disrupts the fading affect bias. Cognition & Emotion, 17, 703-723.

Walker, W.R. Skowronski, J.J.,& Thompson, C. P. (2003). Life is pleasant--and memory helps to keep it that way! Review of General Psychology, 7, 203-210.

Ross, M., & Wilson, A.E. (2002). It feels like yesterday: Self-esteem, valence of personal past experiences, and judgments of subjective distance. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 82, 792-803.

Conway, M., & Ross, M. (1984). Getting what you want by revising what you had. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 47, 738-748.

Bahrick, H.P., Hall, L.K. & Berger, S.A (1996). Accuracy and distortion in memory for high school grades. Psychological Science, 7, 265-271.

Mansfield, E.D. & McAdams, D.P. (1996). Generativity and themes of agency and communion in adult autobiography. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 721-731.



Week 14: April 19 & 21 Talk, Talk, happy talk.....How does social interaction shape autobiographical memory and consequently, the self?

Nelson, K. (2003). Self and social functions: Individual autobiographical memory and collective narrative. Memory, 11, 125-136.

Sutton, J. (2002). Cognitive conceptions of language and the development of autobiographical memory. Language & Communication, 22, 375-390.

Hirst, W., & Manier, D. (1996). Remembering as communication: A family recounts its past. In D.C. Rubin (Ed.), Remembering our past: Studies in autobiographical memory (pp. 271-290). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fivush, R. (1996). Constructing narrative, emotion, and self in parent-child conversations about the past. In U. Neisser & R. Fivush (Eds.), The remembering self: Construction and accuracy in the self-narrative (pp. 136-157). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pasupathi, M. (2001). The social construction of the personal past and its implications for adult development. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 651-672.

Wang, Q., & Brockmeier, J. (2002). Autobiographical remembering as cultural practice: Understanding the interplay between memory, self and culture. Culture & Psychology, 8, 45-64.

Welch-Ross, M. (2001). Personalizing the temporally extended self: Evaluative self-awareness and the development of autobiographical memory. In C. Moore & K. Lemmon (Eds), The self in time: Developmental perspectives. (pp. 97-120). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Wang, Q. (2004). The emergence of cultural self-constructs: Autobiographical memory and self-description in European American and Chinese Children. Developmental Psychology, 40, 3-15.

Welch-Ross, M.K., Fasig, L.G., & Farrar, M. J. (1999). Predictors of preschoolers' self-knowledge: Reference to emotion and mental states in mother-child conversation about past events. Cognitive Development, 14, 401-422.

Mullen, M.K., & Yi, S. (1995). The cultural context of talk about the past: Implications for the development of autobiographical memory. Cognitive Development, 10, 407-419.

Ross, M., Buehler, R., & ; Karr, J.W. (1998). Assessing the accuracy of conflicting autobiographical memories. Memory & Cognition, 26, 1233-1244.

Pillemer, D.B., Wink, P., DiDonato, T.E., & Sanborn, R.L.(2003). Gender differences in autobiographical memory styles of older adults. Memory, 11, 525-532.

Harley, K., & Reese, E. (1999). Origins of autobiographical memory. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1338-1348.

Pasupathi, M. (2003). Emotion regulation during social remembering: Differences between emotions elicited during an event and emotions elicited when talking about it. Memory, 11, 151-163.

Skowronski, J.J., Gibbons, J.A., Vogl, R.L., & Walker, R.W. (In press). The effect of social disclosure on the intensity of affect provoked by autobiographical memories. Self and Identity.

Week 15- the self and social information processing.

Dunning, D. (2003). The relation of self to social perception. In In M.R. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self & identity (pp. 421-441). New York: Guilford Press.

Dunning, D. (2000). Social judgment as implicit social comparison. In J. Suls & L. Wheeler (Eds.), Handbook of social comparison: Theory and research (pp. 353-378). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum press.

Goethals, G.R. (1986). Fabricating and ignoring social reality: Self-serving estimates of consensus. In C.P. Herman & M.P. Zanna (Eds.), Social comparison and relative deprivation: The Ontario Symposium (Vol. 4, pp. 135-157). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Catrambone, R., & Markus, H. (1987). The role of self-schemas in going beyond the information given. Social Cognition, 5, 349-368.

Markus, H., Smith, J., & Moreland, R.L. (1985). Role of the self-concept in the perception of others. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 49, 1494-1512.

Fong, G.T., & Markus, H. (1982). Self-schemas and judgments about others. Social Cognition, 1, 191-204.

Green, J.D., & Sedikides, C. (2001). When do self-schemas shape social perception?: The role of descriptive ambiguity. Motivation & Emotion, 25, 67-83.

Ybarra, O. (1999). Misanthropic person memory when the need to self-enhance is absent. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 261-269.

Sedikides, C., & Skowronski, J. J.(1993). The self in impression formation: Trait centrality and social perception. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 29, 347-357.

Shrauger, S.J., & Patterson, M.B. (1974). Self-evaluation and the selection of dimensions for evaluating others. Journal of Personality, 42, 569-585.

Betz, A.L., & Skowronski, J.J. (1997). Self-events and other-events: Temporal dating and event memory. Memory & Cognition, 25, 701-714.

Lewicki, P. (1984). Self-image and social information processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1177-1190.

McElwee, R.O., Dunning, D., Tan., P., & Hollman, S. (2001). The role of the self and self-serving trait definitions in social judgment. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 23, 123-36.

Newman, L.S., Duff, K.J., Baumeister, R.F. (1997). A new look at defensive projection: Thought suppression, availability, and biased person perception. Journal or Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 980-1001.

Tesser, A., & Campbell, J. (1982). Self-evaluation maintenance and the perception of friends and strangers. Journal of Personality, 50, 261-279.


Focus questions for each week's readings:

Week 1/2:

What are the main historical themes and issues that have emerged in the study of the social psychology of the self? Illustrate these themes with specific theoretical ideas and as many specific research examples as you can.

Week 3

One debate in the self literature concerns whether reflected appraisal is all that important to the construction of the self. Define the alternative theoretical positions of reflected appraisal, projected appraisal and self-reflection and discuss the status of the research with respect to these positions. Be sure to include multiple specific examples of research that speak to these positions. In addition, offer your own opinion about how this theoretical debate will shake out in the future - if we were discussing this issue 30 years from now, what would the status quo conclusion of the area? Support your conclusion with examples from existing research programs.

Week 4:

Outline the main hypotheses of social comparison theory and illustrate how social comparison theory helps to explain phenomena such as the differential reactions of females and blacks to inequity. Then, discuss how the results of various research programs have extended and/or qualified the results of social comparison theory. Be as specific and inclusive in your discussion of research as you can. Include in your answer a discussion about how important or unimportant social comparison-derived information might be in relation to other ways of obtaining information about the self (e.g, comparison to past or future selves).

Week 5

Describe some of the ideas that underlie self-inference and some of the empirical phenomena that have been discovered in the process of investigating self-inferences. Illustrate your answer with as many specific examples of research as you can.

Week 6

Describe the self-motives of Assessment, Enhancement & Verification both conceptually and using multiple, specific examples taken from relevant research programs. One of the debates in this literature is the extent to which one of the motives is pre-eminent? What would your conclusion be? Support that conclusion by reference to research.

Week 7

Describe how and why the self distorts information processing about the self. Be sure to include a theoretical overview of the motives that might induce distortion and the cognitive mechanisms that might produce distortion, as well as a description of the typical effects that illustrate distortion. Be as specific as you can be in your answer with respect to both, citing as many specific sources as you can.

Week 8

Describe how the self has become a major player in the world of cognitive dissonance. Outline some of the major theoretical perspectives in this area that relate dissonance to the self and illustrate the operation of those theoretical perspectives by describing the results of specific research studies.

Week 9

How does the social world bias the content of the self? Take a broad approach to your answer and identify as many of the potentially biasing sources as you can, as well as identifying as many of the different kinds of information that could be identified in the self as you can. In your answer, be sure to illustrate how social circumstances might work to change the contents of the "working self" across time and situation, as well as addressing how social factors might work to affect the "long-term" contents of the cognitive structures that comprise the self.

Week 10

Consider issue of whether the self is a stable entity or whether it is unstable and malleable. Discuss some of the different theoretical positions that bear on the nature of stability or instability. Be sure to illustrate the operation of these theoretical positions by discussing, in detail, the results of research that are relevant to each.

Week 11

Some theorists suggest that the self is a semantic construction; others suggest that the self is constructed from an individual's event memories. Review the evidence on this issue, and in the process discuss and describe alternative ideas about the relation between episodic and semantic memories about the self.

Week 12

Theorists have discussed alternative ideas with respect to the organization of self-knowledge. For example, some researchers (e.g., Nelson, Fivush) focus on the role of narrative organizations, while others (e.g., Conway & Pleydell-Pearce) take various structural approaches. Discuss some of those ideas and explore their similarities and differences. Be sure to highlight each of the theories by describing relevant empirical research in as much detail as you can.

Week 13

How is autobiographical memory affected by the self? Illustrate the depth and breadth of the empirical findings that address this question by describing as much relevant research in as much detail as you can. In addition, you might try to also address the related issue of how the self is affected by autobiographical memory by similarly citing relevant research.

Week 14

Review both theory and research that relates social interaction to the development and maintenance of autobiographical memory. Describe data that illustrates the role of social interaction in memory from developmental, cognitive, and social perspectives. Include as much detail about the relevant research in your answers as you can.

Week 15

Describe the data suggesting that the self plays a role in social perception. Be sure to highlight the effects of the self on as many different processes (unitization, attention, selection of judgment dimensions, event interpretation, event memory, etc.) as you can, and be specific in your citations and descriptions of the results of different studies.