Recurring Issues in Human Development
Three main issues are prominent in the study of human development.
Nature vs. Nurture -
Continuity vs. discontinuity -
Universal vs. Context-specific –
Basic Forces in Human Development: The Biopsychosocial Framework
Biological Forces include all genetic and health related factors that affect development.
Psychological forces include all internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional
and personality factors that influence development.
Sociocultural forces include interpersonal, societal, cultural, and
ethnic factors that affect development.
Life-cycle forces: “biopsychosocial” framework
Psychodynamic theories - propose that behavior is determined by unconscious motives.
Social learning theory proposes that people learn
by observing others.
Cognitive-Developmental theory -
Information-processing theory - argues that people deal with
information like a computer does, and that development consists of increased
efficiency in handling information.
Ecological and Systems approach
Competence-environmental press -
Life Span and Life Course theories
Doing Developmental Research
Measurement in Human Development
Systematic Observation -
Sampling behavior -
Each of these methods must be shown to be reliable and valid.Reliability -
General Designs for Research
Correlational studies -
The correlation coefficient is a number that describes a relationship.
Experimental studies -
Independent Variable -
Dependent Variable -
Designs for Studying Development
Longitudinal studies -
Cross-sectional designs -
Sequential designs -
Conducting Research Ethically
minimize risk to participants
results should be confidential
Communicating Research Results
submit manuscripts to scientific journals
become references in texts like K/C
encourages further research endeavors by others
In the Beginning: 23 Pairs of Chromosomes
Mechanisms of Heredity
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes,
22 pairs of autosomes plus the sex chromosomes.
Dominant vs. Recessive:
Genetic disorders can result from inheriting harmful genes.
Genetic disorders can also be the result of extra, missing or damaged
Disorders of the sex chromosomes are more common because these chromosomes
contain much less genetic material.
From Conception to Birth
Period of the Zygote
Period of the Embryo
Period of the Fetus
Influences on Prenatal Development
General Risk Factors
Teratogens: Drugs, Disease, and Environmental Hazards
How Teratogens Influence Prenatal Development
Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment
Labor and Delivery
Stages of Labor
Approaches to Childbirth
The Newborn’s Reflexes
Assessing the Newborn
The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
The Newborn’s States
Growth of the Body
Breastfeeding vs. Bottlefeeding
The Emerging Nervous System
Neurons, include a cell body, a dendrite, and an
Neuronal Stages of Development:
Moving and Grasping - Early Motor Skills
Maturation and Experience: Both Influence Motor Skills
Coming to Know the World: Perception
Smell and Taste
Touch and Pain
Integrating Sensory Information
Origins of Self-Concept
Theory of Mind
Theory of mind refers to our intuitive understanding of ourselves and others.
The development of a theory of mind has three phases:
Desire and mental states
Belief and desire -
The Emergence of Thought and Language
The Onset of Thinking: Piaget’s Account
Basic Principles of Cognitive Development
1. Thought is always
2. Assimilation -
3. Accommodation -
4. Periodically the child’s cognitive structures
undergo massive change.
The result is four different phases of mental development from infancy through adulthood.
All individuals go through all four phases, but not necessarily at the same rate.
FOUR PHASES ARE:
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational
0 to 8 months
Primary Circular Reactions -
Secondary circular reactions -
By 8-12 months, (intention) -
By 12-18 months (experiment),
Tertiary circular reactions -
By 18-24 months,
From 2 to 7 years of age
Thinking is limited by
Evaluating Piaget’s Theory
Information-Processing During Infancy and Early Childhood
General Information Processing Principles
Mind and Culture: Vygotsky’s Theory
The Zone of Proximal Development
The Road to Speech
Crying, Cooing, Babbling
First Words and Many More
Babies first understand speech, then begin to speak
after first birthday
Underextension and Overextension of words
Vocabulary is stimulated by experience
Speaking in Sentences: Grammatical Development
One word, to two word sentences
Grammatical morphemems - learn rules
Some claim our brains are pre-wired to understand
Experience and models are crucial
Communicating with Others
Parents encourage turn-taking
Demonstrate speaker and listener rules
Preschoolers can adjust their speech to fit the listener's
ENTERING THE SOCIAL WORLD
Erikson’s Stages of Early Psychosocial Development
Crisis of Infancy
Crisis of 1 to 3 years
Crisis of 3 to 5 years
The Growth of Attachment
An enduring socail-emotioanl relationship between infant
By 6 or 7 months have an attachment figure (mother)
Later attach to other family members, too
Studying Attachment: Strange Situation
Infant and mom together
Four types of Attachment
Secure infants interact with peers better, better outcomes
Attachment, Work and Alternative Caregiving
Attachment and Child care
Good Quality Child Care
Early in life we see happiness, anger, surprise, fear, disgust, and sadness
Shown by facial expressions
Social smile at 2 months
Laughter at 4 months
Anger at 4 to 6 months
Fear at 6 months
guilt, embarrassment, and pride emerge at 18 to 24 months
Develop after the child has a sense of self
Complex emotions are not universal
Recognizing and Using Others’ Emotions
Infants can distinguish facial expressions and will
match their emotions to others' at 6 months old (social referencing)
Interacting with Others
The Joys of Play
Babies notice each other
At 12 - 15 months - parallel play
Later simple social play emerges
At 2 years, cooperative play emerges
2 year olds prefer same sex play
Boys and Girls' play differs
Parents play with toddlers at their level or slightly
Learning to Cooperate
Cooperation is more common as children get older
Children will model cooperation
Cooperation influenced by societal values
Children who can take others' perspetives help others
more (or share more)
Contextual factors are important
Parents influence children's helping and sharing
Parents treat sons and daughters similarly, except in gender-typed activities.
Peers are critical of children who engage in cross-gender play. (boys more than girls)
By 2 or 3 a child can label themselves as a boy or girl.
By 4 and 7 children develop gender constancy.
They can also stereotype activites by sex
Evolving Gender Roles
STUDY GUIDE for EXAM 1
What are some of the key theoretical questions for studying human development?
Describe the core of Freud's theoretical framework - what elements are key?
What is Erikson's theory in general?
What is behaviorism - how would you apply its principles?
Describe Piaget's overall theory.
What are the methods we use to collect data? How do correlations work?
What is the difference between an independent and dependent variable?
What are the three main types of research regarding time span?
Create your family tree regarding eye color or help a partner do the same if you don't have enough information.
What are the stages of prenatal development?
What are terotagens? What are some examples?
What are the stages of labor?
What are some of baby's reflexes?
What are a baby's states of being?
Briefly discuss some key advantages to breastfeeding.
List some of the key hallmarks of gross motor development (motor skills)
Read in your book about handedness (right vs. left)
Review and list how babies can use their senses.
Describe Piaget's theory through early childhood (the basics and sensorimotor and preoperational stages)
Review infant's memory skills - read about Rovee-Collier's research.
Understand Vygotsky's key concepts.
What is a phoneme? Apply your knowledge.
What is habituation?
How do parents influence language development - review this in your book.
Understand Erikson's theory as it applies to infants and toddlers.
Review the primary types of play. Review the hallmarks of emotional development.
Review sex differences, stereotypes, etc. in your book.