Outline of the Major Points in Carl Jung's Contributions to Psychology
I. Core Tendency (the tendency toward attainment of selfhood.The goal of development is wholeness and balance within oneself.)
1.Principle of Equivalence (balance of, and conservation of energies; If energy is increased in one area, it must decrease in another area.)
2.Principle of Entropy (energy distribution seeks balance; The ideal state of the self is balance, so one must overcome conflicts to seek this balance.)
3.Principle of Opposites (knowing a thing comes from knowing its counterpart; Every good has a bad, every positive has a negative, etc.)
4.Transcendent Function (integrating activity of the self; the process of joining opposing forces into a middle ground.)
II.Core Characteristics of the self
A.Ego (the conscious mind)
B.Personal Unconscious (formed of socially unacceptable content)
C.Collective Unconscious (communal memory, predisposition to view the world)
D.Archetypes (inherited way of responding to certain aspects of the world)
1.Persona (public mask which one presents to the world)
2.Animus (male archetype in women)
3.Anima (female archetype in men)
4.Mother (mothering, nurturing archetype)
5.Shadow (dark side of personality, holds animal and sexual instincts) [Darth Vader, in the Star Wars Trilogy]
6.Hero (savior of the tribe, rescuer) [Luke Skywalker]
7.Rebirth (seasons, reincarnation)
8.Virgin (purity, untested sexuality) [Princess Leia]
9.Wise Old Man (balanced with foolishness) [Yoda]
10.Good Father (guidance, wisdom) [Obe Wan Kenobe]
III. Periphery of Personality
A.Introversive-Rational Types (Absorbed with inner thoughts and ideas – Philosophers, theoretical scientists; Outwardly cool, but have deep emotions – movie critics, writers, artists)
B.Extroversive-Rational Types (Values objective analysis, excellent planners – research scientists, accountants, business executives; attuned to social needs of others – Politicians, salesmen, preachers)
C.Introversive-Irrational Types (precise perceptions for memory and detail – artists, writers, classical musicians; intense inner world and attuned to unconscious images – Prophets, mystics, spiritual leaders, JUNG).
Types (Accurate awareness of environment – astronauts, cooks, cops, engineers;
focus on future visions – inventors, entrepreneurs)
Jung’s Stages of DevelopmentJung’s ideas on development are seen as the seasons of life.Each stage represents the death of the previous and a birth to the new life.
I.Childhood: Here theconscious dominates.“The Spring of Life”, a new beginning.Balanced and real.Death is womb.
A. Birth-3/5: extroversion/introversion appear.Nutrition and growth.
B. 3/5-puberty: think/feel; sense/intuition appear.
II. Youth:Persona dominates, focus on external world.Death is childhood.
A. Adolescence: true psychic birth, 1st part of being unbalanced.
B. Young adulthood: process of separation from family. Inflated persona.
III.Middle Life, 40-60/65: Integration of the shadow dominates.Death is youth.
A. Major changes in physical and psychological life.
Midlife crisis: When one is bored with material success and wants to make
sense of their life.
Carl Jung felt that dreams were an importantpart of understanding our inner psyche.
Our dreams were a reflection of our unconscious, and of what we wish tobe like in our normal lives.
are impartial, spontaneousproducts of the unconscious psyche..”
Shadow Cornered painting
by C. G. Jung, depicting his sense of despair and isolation following the
breakup of his friendship with Sigmund Freud.